USANTA CRUZ - Xa beceba ukuphanga ivenkile yotywala, uninzi lwezaphuli-mthetho lucinga ukunxiba iiglavu kunye nokugquma ubuso babo. Kodwa bambalwa kubo abazibophelela ekuchebeni iintloko zabo ukunqanda ukushiya ngasemva nokuba lunye uhlobo lweenwele.



Kwixesha elizayo, nangona kunjalo, banokufuna ukongeza loo msebenzi kwimodus operandi yabo. Epakishwe nge-DNA, iinwele zikhawuleza zibe ngumthombo onamandla wokunceda ukubamba abaphuli bomthetho.

Iinwele ziye zaziwa ngokukhohlisayo ukuhlalutya, kodwa indlela entsha yabaphandi be-UC Santa Cruz - ukutsala i-DNA kwiisampuli ezonakalisiweyo okanye ezosulelekileyo - ukwandisa i-pool ekhoyo yobungqina be-forensic. Ngoku iDNA kunye neengxelo zookhokho zisetyenziswa kunye ukwakha imithi yeentsapho ukuze kubonwe ama-apile abolileyo phakathi kwamasebe awo.





UBarbara Rae-Venter, igqwetha lepropathi yobukrelekrele esele esidla umhlala-phantsi kunye nengcali yokuzalwa, owanceda ukuqhekeza ityala leGolden State Killer limise umfanekiso kufutshane nekhaya lakhe laseMonterey Peninsula. (LiPo Ching/Bay Area News Group)

Kodwa ngelixa ibala elivelayo elikhawulezayo lomnombo wophando lisombulula amatyala abandayo, likwaphakamisa imibuzo eneenqobo ezisesikweni malunga nobumfihlo. Sonke sishiya umkhondo wethu naphi na apho siya khona.

Unyanzeliso lomthetho luyonwaba ngeenwele kuba zihlala zizinto zonke ezisendleleni yobungqina, utshilo umlibo wokuzalwa uBarbara Rae-Venter, odibene noRichard Ed Green, unjingalwazi onxulumene nobunjineli be-biomolecular e-UC Santa Cruz. Uhlaza, owaziwa ngomsebenzi wakhe kwiintsalela ze-Neanderthals, uye wavelisa izixhobo zokucacisa i-DNA yakudala - ihlala ingamakhulu amawaka eminyaka ubudala.



Ngaphambi kokufumana ukuqatshelwa ngokuchonga uJoseph James DeAngelo, umtyholwa weGolden State Killer, uRae-Venter wayengumhlala-phantsi oqhelisela umlibo kwikhaya lakhe laseMonterey Peninsula.

Ngelixa wayesakha umthi wosapho lomfazi owathinjwa esengumntwana kwaye kamva washiywa kwipaki yekhaya yaseScotts Valley, uRae-Venter wanxulumanisa umrhanelwa, uTerry Peder Rasmussen, kwizigebenga ezine ezingasonjululwanga zaseBear Brook eNew Hampshire ngasekupheleni kwexesha. 70s. I-DNA evela emathanjeni amaxhoba, nangona kunjalo, yonakaliswe kakhulu ukuseka ukuba ngubani amaxhoba, kwaye uRasmussen wasweleka kwiNtolongo yaseCalifornia yaseDesert State ngo-2010.



URae-Venter wayebambekile, engaqinisekanga ngendlela yokulityhila eli tyala, xa wayefunda ibali leendaba elimalunga noGreen.

Ndonwabe kakhulu kuba wayemana ethetha ngeenwele, utshilo uRae-Venter.



Ngenxa yokuba iinwele azithobi kakhulu ekuhambeni kwexesha, wayeneisampulu kwixhoba ngalinye kodwa kungekho ndlela yokuzihlalutya. Iinwele zibe bubungqina obuluncedo kuphela ukuba ingcambu yayo, ikhutshwe kwi-follicle, ibisanamathele.

UGreen kunye neqela lakhe, nangona kunjalo, babesandula ukutsala i-DNA esebenzisekayo kwintambo yeenwele ngaphandle kweengcambu zayo, kucingelwa ukuba ayinakwenzeka.



Iisampulu ze-Forensic zinokubonwa njengeesampuli zamandulo ze-DNA ezilula (ukuhlalutya) kuba zincinci kakhulu, nakwiimeko ezibandayo, utshilo uGreen kudliwanondlebe lwakutsha nje kwiofisi yakhe ye-UCSC.

UGreen kunye noRae-Venter baqala ukuhlalutya iinwele ukusuka ekubulaweni kweBear Brook ngo-2017 kwaye ekugqibeleni bachonga abathathu kwamaxhoba amane ngoJuni ophelileyo. Esebenzisa iindlela ezifanayo, uRae-Venter ngoko wathiywa nguDeAngelo, ngelo xesha owayeneminyaka engama-72 ubudala, ngoku olindele ukuxoxwa kwetyala ngothotho lokubulala olwenziwa eCalifornia ukusukela ngo-1976 ukuya kowe-1986.

Ukuphumelela kwe-duo kuye kwabangela ukuba iGreen ifumane inkampani, i-Astrea Forensics, kunye ne-paleogeneticist uKelly Harkins Kincaid, owayengumphandi we-UCSC we-postdoctoral ngoku oyi-CEO yenkampani. Inkampani, eseSanta Cruz, sele isombulule amatyala amaninzi kwaye iyaqhubeka nokusebenza kwamanye amaninzi.

Kukho imakethi yoku, utshilo uGreen. Kukho imfuno yenkonzo yoluntu kunye nomsebenzi omkhulu wentlalontle.

Kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo, iiprofayili zabarhanelwa bolwaphulo-mthetho zenziwe ngenkqubo ebizwa ngokuba yi-DNA fingerprinting. Ixhomekeke kwipatheni ekhethekileyo yomntu kwiimpawu ze-20 zofuzo - amacandelo amafutshane e-DNA ahluka phakathi kwabantu. Abarhanelwa abangene kwi-database ye-FBI yolwaphulo-mthetho bafaniswa ne-16 yezigidi zeeprofayili.

Kodwa i-DNA evela kwiimeko ezibandayo ivelisa ukubetha ngaphantsi kwe-1% yexesha.

Isizathu kukuba inkqubo ye-FBI idinga umgangatho ophezulu, i-DNA ebonakalayo kumntu oyedwa - umgangatho onzima kwaye uhlala ungenakufikeleleka. Amatyala amaninzi ayabanda kuba i-DNA indala okanye yonakele, yosulelwe yi-bacterial DNA okanye ixutywe nezinto ezivela kubantu abaninzi.

Iindlela zobunikazi be-Astrea zakha kwakhona i-genomes yonke - yonke into yemfuza kwiseli nganye - ukusuka kwi-DNA fragments. Ngokulandelelanisa i-genome yonke, endaweni yokumakisha nje angama-20, uhlobo olutsha lweengcali zemilibo yokuzalwa zihlala zichonga abantu i-FBI ayinako.

Ukufikelela kwidatha yeDNA kuyakhula. Iinkampani ezinje nge-23andMe kunye ne-Ancestry.com zilandelelanise iigenomes zabantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-30 kule minyaka ilishumi idlulileyo.

I-database yeefemu iyimfihlo, kodwa abathengi banokufaka iiprofayili zabo kwiindawo ze-third party ezifana ne-GEDmatch, inkampani yaseFlorida evumela abasebenzisi bayo ukuba baqhathanise iziphumo zovavanyo lwezofuzo kwiinkampani ezahlukeneyo ze-DNA kwaye basebenzise umlibo wokuzalwa ukuze baphinde bakhe imithi yentsapho.

Ifakwe kwi-forensics, iba bubuchule obumangalisayo. Intombazana ebizwa ngokuba yiBuckskin Girl, eyalahlwa kwindlela yaseOhio ngo-1981, yahlala ingaziwa iminyaka engama-37. Kodwa kwiiyure ezine kuphela, uColleen Fitzpatrick, umseki we-DNA Doe Project eSebastopol, wamchonga ngo-2018 njengoMarcia Lenore King oneminyaka engama-21 ubudala.

ISebe lezoBulungisa laseMelika kutshanje likhuphe umgaqo-nkqubo walo wokuqala wexeshana malunga nomlibo wophando, inyathelo lokuqala lokulinganisa umsebenzi. Umgaqo-nkqubo uthi abaphandi bolwaphulo-mthetho olunobundlobongela abaye bazigqiba iindlela zesintu ezifana nokuprintwa kweminwe ngoku banokuqwalasela umlibo wokuzalwa.

KwiNqila yaseSanta Clara, umenzi wetyala obandayo uKevin Kellogg sele esebenzise umnombo wophando ukusombulula amatyala amaninzi, kubandakanywa nokubulawa ngokukrwitshwa kuka-1973 komfundi ophumelele isidanga saseStanford uLeslie Marie Perlov ngo-1973.

UJohn Arthur Getreu, oneminyaka engama-74 ubudala owayesakuba yinkokeli yeBoy Scouts kunye nomlawuli ophakamileyo weFremont Elks Lodge, ngoku utyholwa ngokubulala uPerlov nokulahla umzimba wakhe kwiinduli zePalo Alto. Njengomphumo wovavanyo lwe-DNA, uGetreu ngoku ukwahlawuliswa eSan Mateo County ngo-1974 ngokukrwitsha ukufa kuka-Janet Ann Taylor oneminyaka engama-21 ubudala, intombi yomqeqeshi webhola ekhatywayo waseStanford uChuck Taylor.

Izixhobo ezitsha zizisa uchulumanco kwiimeko ezibandayo apho besicinga ukuba akukho mpendulo, utshilo uKellogg.

Ngokufanayo, njengoko i-Ofisi ye-Santa Cruz County Sheriff's Office isebenza ngakumbi kwi-DNA kunanini ngaphambili, uMlawuli weeNkonzo ze-Forensic uLaura Walker uthi kukho umdla omtsha kwi-forensic genealogy. Idolophu iceba ukwakha iphiko elitsha lohlalutyo lwe-DNA kwilebhu yayo yolwaphulo-mthetho kwiminyaka emithathu.

Kodwa njengoko intsimi iqhubela phambili, abachasi bomnombo wophando baphakamisa imiba yokuziphatha. Uphononongo luka-2018 olwenziwa yinkampani yovavanyo lweDNA iMyHeritage yafumanisa ukuba i60 pesenti yabantu baseMelika babonwa ngamalungu osapho nokuba abazange basebenzise izixhobo zeDNA ngokwabo.

Abagxeki bezixhobo ezitsha bathi njengoko abantu abaninzi besebenzisa iikiti kunye nokwakha i-database ye-DNA, amapolisa anokugqibela ngokulandela nabani na.

URebecca Jeschke, umhlalutyi we-Electronic Frontier Foundation eSan Francisco, ulumkisa ukuba ukufikelela kuluhlu lwedatha kunokubangela ukuba amapolisa aqokelele ngokugqithiseleyo imathiriyeli yemfuzo. Iqela lamalungelo edijithali ngoku limangalela iSebe laseMelika loKhuseleko lweLizwe malunga nokuqokelela kwayo iDNA kubafuduki kumda wase-US-Mexico.

I-DNA ibambe ulwazi lwabucala kunye nolunzulu lomntu, utshilo uJeschke, esongeza ukuba isisombululo sinokuba yinkqubo yokuhlola ukufikelela kwabomthetho kugcino lwedatha, kubandakanya ukongamela okongeziweyo okuvela kwiijaji okanye ezinye iingcali.

Ukuphendula inkxalabo yoluntu, i-GEDmatch itshintshe umgaqo-nkqubo wayo ongagqibekanga ngoMeyi odlulileyo ngokungabandakanyi zonke iiprofayili ze-1.25 yezigidi ezivela kumthetho wokuthotyelwa komthetho. Abasebenzisi ngoku kufuneka bangene emva kokufunda iingcaciso ezintsha malunga nendlela idatha yabo eya kusetyenziswa ngayo. Ngenxa yoko, abaphandi banokufikelela nje kwiiprofayili ze-190,000.

URae-Venter uthe amatyala amaninzi awasombululayo aya kuhlala ebanda phantsi kwezi zithintelo zitsha.

Uhlalutyo lwedatha ye-FBI ye-2018 yiProjekthi yoKuphendula ngokuBulala yafumanisa ukuba i-40% yokubulawa kwabantu e-US ayisonjululwa. Zingaphezu kwama-250,000 iimeko ukususela ngo-1980.

Usuku ngalunye lubonakala luzisa umngeni omtsha wokuziphatha kwintsimi entsha, kodwa iingcali ezininzi zokuziphatha zikholelwa ukuba indlela inokufumaneka ukulinganisa ingozi yeteknoloji entsha kunye nemivuzo.

Sisafumana indlela eya apho imida iya kuba khona, utshilo i-bioethicist uAmy McGuire waseBaylor College of Medicine eHouston. Kodwa ukuba yenziwe kakuhle, ukuba yenziwe ngokufanelekileyo, ndiziva ndiqinisekile ukuba eyona ngozi yabucala incinci.

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Ababini baseCentral Coast basombulula iimeko ezibandayo

Intsimi ekhulayo ye-forensic genealogy iye yakhawuleza ngokukhawuleza kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo, enkosi kakhulu kubaphandi ababini baseCentral Coast. Nantsi eminye imisitho ephambili:

Meyi 2017 : URichard Ed Green, uprofesa we-UC Santa Cruz onxulumene nobunjineli be-biomolecular, usebenzisa iinwele ezingenazo iingcambu ukuchonga u-Miranda Eve oneminyaka emi-3 njengo-Edith Howard Cook, ilungu lentsapho eyaziwayo ye-19th yenkulungwane ye-Bay Area umzimba wakhe wafunyanwa kwi-casket. phantsi kwekhaya laseSan Francisco ngo-2016. Ukuhanjiswa kweendaba kwakhokelela kwi-Monterey Peninsula genealogist uBarbara Rae-Venter ukuba aqhagamshelane noGreen ngoncedo lokuchonga amaxhoba amane eNew Hampshire's Bear Brook okubulala ukusuka ekupheleni kwe-70s.

EyeThupha 2017 : URae-Venter uthumela iisampulu zeenwele kumaxhoba atyholwa ngokuba ngumbulali we-serial Bear Brook, uTerry Peder Rasmussen, ukuya kuGreen ukuze kuhlalutywe kusetyenziswa izixhobo ezitsha zophando. URasmussen usweleke ngo-2010 ngelixa ethothoza iminyaka eli-15 kwiNtolongo yaseCalifornia ekwiNtolongo yaseDesert State ngokubulala intombi yakhe, u-Eunsoon Jun.

Epreli 2018 : URae-Venter uchonga uJoseph James DeAngelo, ngoku oneminyaka engama-74 kwaye ulindele ukuxoxwa kwetyala, njengoMbulali weGolden State.

Meyi 2019 : I-GEDmatch, inkampani yaseFlorida evumela abasebenzisi bayo ukuba baqhathanise iziphumo zovavanyo lwemfuza kwiinkampani ezahlukeneyo ze-DNA, inqanda ukufikelela kwisiseko sedatha ngokuthotyelwa komthetho ekuphenduleni iinkxalabo zoluntu malunga nobumfihlo.

NgoJuni 2019 : Emva kokusebenza ityala le-Bear Brook kunye phantse iminyaka emibini, uRae-Venter noGreen bachaza ngokuqinisekileyo abathathu kumaxhoba amane njengoMarlyse Elizabeth Honeychurch, 24, kunye neentombi uMarie Elizabeth Vaughn, 6, kunye noSarah Lynn McWaters, 1.

NgoSeptemba 2019 : Ukwakha kwiimpumelelo ze-duo, i-Green ifumene i-Astrea Forensics e-Santa Cruz kunye ne-paleogeneticist uKelly Harkins Kincaid.




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